Ordinarily, I would not suggest reading through a list of references. The concept of doing so is reminiscent of ‘words of wisdom’ given to me and my sister by my mother when we were young. If my sister and I were bored on a rainy Saturday, she would suggest, “Why not read the phone book?” You might be surprised by what you could learn.” My mother was a strong believer in reading anything and everything, and not too fond of watching too much TV, which she affectionately called ‘the idiot box’. So, it is with this background that I have chosen my words carefully when I suggest that you at least glance through the reference list that follows. I have taken the time to include the title of all of the journals, patents, books, etc that I have utilized as background for this book on Nucleotides. These references span more than 70 years, with the first article concerning nucleotides dating back to 1944 and current articles as recent as 2016. Perusing the titles gives you an inkling of the vast research support for the use of nucleotides over a wide range of health topics. Glancing through the references also helps to illustrate that this research originates from countries all over the world. This nucleic acid research has been conducted throughout the animal kingdom, from work in infants and adult humans, to a range of animals and fish. The far reaching applicability of the use of nucleotides is both overwhelming as well comforting, giving a sense of security that this field has been widely researched in countries all over the world, covering a multitude of topics, used in many animal species over the course of decades.

Abtahi, Behrooz; Yousefi, Morteza and Abdolmohammad, A. K. (2011). Influence of dietary nucleotides supplementation on growth, body composition and fatty acid profile of Beluga sturgeon juveniles (Huso huso). Aquaculture Research, 1. 1–7.

Adjei AA1, Jones JT, Enriquez FJ, Yamamoto S.(1999). Dietary nucleosides and nucleotides reduce Cryptosporidium parvum infection in dexamethasone immunosuppressed adult mice. Exp Parasitol., 92(3). 199-208.

Adjei AA, Yamauchi K, Chan YC, et al. (1996). Comparative effects of dietary nucleoside-nucleotide mixture and its components on endotoxin induced bacterial translocation and small intestinal injury in protein deficient mice. Gut, 38. 531-7.

Adjei AA, Yamamoto S. (1995). A dietary nucleoside-nucleotide mixture inhibits endotoxin-induced bacterial translocation in mice fed protein-free diet. J Nutr., 125. 42-8.

Aggett P., Leach JL., Rueda R., MacLean WC., Jr. (2003). Innovation in infant formula development: a reassessment of ribonucleotides in 2002. Nutrition, 19. 375–384

Agteresch HJ, et al. (1999). Adenosine triphosphate: established and potential clinical applications. Drugs, 58(2). 211-232.

Aljanabi, S. M. and Martinez, Iciar (1997). Universal and rapid salt extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR-based techniques. Nucleic Acid Research, 25 (22). 4692-4693.

Almansouri HMSH, Yamamoto S, Kulkarni AD, Ariizumi M, Adjei AA, Yamauchi K. (1996). Effect of dietary nucleosides and nucleotides on murine allergic rhinitis. Am J Med Sci., 312(5). 202-5.

Arnaud, Alexandra, José María López-Pedrosa, María Isabel Torres, and Ángel Gil. (2003). Dietary Nucleotides Modulate Mitochondrial Function of Intestinal Mucosa in Weanling Rats with Chronic Diarrhea. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 37(2). 124-31.

Arnaud A. (2003). Exogenous nucleosides alter the intracellular nucleotide pool in hepatic cell cultures. Implications in cell proliferation and function. Clin Nutr., 22 (4). 391-9.

Arslanoglu S, Bertino E, Nicocia M, et al. (2011). WAPM Working Group on Nutrition: potential chronobiotic role of human milk in sleep regulation. J Perinat Med., 40. 1-8

Avery, O. T., MacLeod, C. M., & McCarty, M. (1944). Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal types: Induction of transformation by a desoxyribonucleic acid fraction isolated from Pneumococcus Type III. The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 79(2). 137–158.

Balcarek, K.; Venhoff, N.; Deveaud, C. (2010). Role of pyrimidine depletion in the mitochondrial cardiotoxicity of nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr., 10. 1-5.

Ballarin M, Herrera-Marschitz M, Casas M, et al. (1987). Striatal adenosine levels measured in vivo by microdialysis in rats with unilateral dopamine denervation. Neurosci Lett., 83. 338-44.
Balmer SA, Hanvey LS, Wharton BA. (1994). Diet and faecal flora in the newborn: nucleotides. Arch Dis Child, 70. F137-40.

Banasch, M.; Goetze, O.; Knyhala, K. (2006). Uridine supplementation enhances hepatic mitochondrial function in thymidine-analogue treated HIV-infected patients. AIDS, 20. 1554-1556.

Bastamante, S. A., N. Sanches, J. Crosier, D. Miranda, G. Colombo, and M. J. S. Miller. (1994). Dietary nucleotides: effects on the gastrointestinal system in swine. J. Nutr., 124. 149S-156S.

Becher, F.; Pruvost, A. G.; and Schlemmer, D. D. (2003). Significant levels of intracellular stavudine triphosphate are found in HIV-infected zidovudine-treated patients. AIDS, 17. 555-561.

Belo A., Marchbank T., Fitzgerald A., Ghosh S., Playford RJ. (2006).Gastroprotective effects of oral nucleotide administration. Gut, 55. 165–171.

Benowitz LI, Goldberg DE, Irwin N.(2002). Inosine stimulates axon growth in vitro and in the adult CNS. Prog Brain Res., 137. 389-99.

Bianchi R, Sciarretta Birolo R, Tsankova V, and Tacconi MT.(1999). Deficiency of methyl donor pathway affects myelination in developing rats. J. Neurochem., 73 .S155.

Bonora, S.; Boffito, M. D. and Avolio, A. (2004). Detection of stavudine concentrations in plasma of HIV-infected patients taking zidovudine. AIDS, 18. 577-578.

Bower RH, Cerra FB, Bershadsky B, Licari JJ, Hoyt DB, Jensen GL, Van Buren CT, Rothkopf MM, Daly JM, Adelsberg BR. (1995).Early enteral administration of a formula (Impact) supplemented with arginine, nucleotides, and fish oil in intensive care unit patients: results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Crit Care Med. 23(3) .436-49.

Bowles JT. (1998). The evolution of aging: a new approach to an old problem of biology. Medical Hypotheses, 51. 179- 221.

Boza JJ. (2002). Role of glutamine on the de novo purine nucleotide synthesis in Caco-2 cells. Eur J Nutr., 39 (1). pp. 38-46.

Boza J.(1998). Nucleotides in infant nutrition. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd, 146. S39–S48.

Brule D, Sarwar G, Savoic L, Campbell J, Van Zeggelsar M. (1988). Differences in uricogenic effects of dietary purine bases, nucleosides and nucleotides in rats. J Nutrition, 118. 780-6.

Brunser O, Espinoza J, Araya M, Cruchet S, Gil A. (1994). Effect of dietary nucleotide supplementation on diarrhoeal disease in infants. Acta Paediatr., 83.188-91.

Buck RH, Thomas DL, Winship TR, et al. (2004). Effect of dietary ribonucleotides on infant immune status. Part 2: Immune cell development. Pediatr Res., 56. 891-900.

Bueno J, Torres A, Almendros A, Carmona R, Nunez MC and Gil A, (1994) Effect of dietary nucleotides on small intestinal repair after diarrhoea. Histological and ultrastructural changes. Gut, 35. 926-933.

Burton, K. (1985). A study of the conditions and mechanism of the diphenylamine reaction for the colorimetric estimation of DNA. Biochem J., 62. 315.

Capogrossi MC, Francendese A, Digirolamo M. (1979). Suppression of food intake by adenosine and inosine. Am J Clin Nutr., 32. 1762-8.

Carr, A.; Miller, J.; Law, M. and Cooper, D. A. (2000). A syndrome of lipoatrophy, lactic acidaemia and liver dysfunction associated with HIV nucleoside analogue therapy: contribution to protease inhibitor related lipodystrophy syndrome. AIDS, 14. F25-F32.

Carver, J. D. (1994). Dietary nucleotides: cellular immune, intestinal, and hepatic system effects. J. Nutr., 124.144S-148S.

Carver, JD. (1999). Dietary nucleotides: effects on the immune and gastrointestinal systems. Acta Paediatrica., 88. 83-88.

Carver, J. D., W. I. Cox, and L. A. Barness. (1990). Dietary nucleotide effects upon murine natural killer cell activity and macrophage activation. J. Parenter. Enteral Nutr., 14. 18-22.

Carver JD et al. (2002). The Effects of Dietary Nucleotides on Intestinal Blood Flow. Pediatric Research, 52 (3). 425-429.

Carver, J. D.; Pimentel, B.; Cox, W. I. and Barness, L. A. (1991). Dietary nucleotide effects upon immune function in infants. Pediatrics, 88. 359-363.

Carver JD, Sosa R, Saste M, Kuchan M. (2004). Dietary nucleotides and intestinal blood flow velocity in term infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 39(1).38-42.

Carver JD., Stromquist CI.(2006). Dietary nucleotides and preterm infant nutrition. J Perinatol., 26. 443–444

Carver JD, Walker WA. (1995). The role of nucleotides in human nutrition. Nutr Biochem., 6 .58-72.

Chen TH, Wang MF, Liang YF, et al. (2000). A nucleoside-nucleotide mixture may reduce memory deterioration in old senescence-accelerated mice. J Nutr., 130. 3085-9.

Chen XJ, Yang FQ, Wang YT, Li SP. (2010). CE and CEC of nucleosides and nucleotides in food materials. Electrophoresis, 31. 2092-105.

Clifford AJ and Story DL. (1976). Levels of purines in foods and their metabolic effects in rats. The Journal of Nutrition, 106. 435-42.

Connolly, G. P. and Duley, J. A. (1999). Uridine and its nucleotides; biological actions, therapeutic potentials. Trend in Pharmacological Sciences, 20 (5). 218-225.

Corradetti R, Lo Conte G, Moroni F, et al. (1984). Adenosine decreases aspartate and glutamate release from rat hippocampal slices. Eur J Pharmacol., 104. 19-26.

Cosgrove M, Davies DP, Jenkins HR. (1996). Nucleotide supplementation and the growth of term small for gestational age infants. Arch Dis Child, 74. F122-5.

Cosgrove M. (1998). Nucleotides. Nutrition, 14. 748-51.

Currell K, Derave, W, Everaert I, et al. (2011). A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance-Part 20. Br J Sports Med., 45. 530-2.

Dancey CP1, Attree EA, Brown KF. (2006). Nucleotide supplementation: a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of IntestAidIB in people with Irritable Bowel Syndrome [ISRCTN67764449]. Nutr J., 8. 5:16.

De Kort EJ, Groenendijk M., Kamphuis, PJGH. (2011). A palatable nutritional composition comprising a nucleotide and/or a nucleoside and a taste masking agent. United States US 2011105594-A1, 2011-05-05. 

DeLucchi C, Pita ML, Faus MJ, Molina JA, Uauy R, Gil A. (1987). Effects of dietary nucleotides on the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane lipids in term infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr., 6.568-74.

Devresse B. (2000). A forgotten but key nutrient for the immune system: Nucleotides. A review and current advances. V Congreso Ecuatoriano de Acuicultura, enfocando los retos del 28-30 October 1999, Guayaquil, Ecuador.


Dhar S, Hicks C, Levenson AS. (2011). Resveratrol and prostate cancer: promising role for microRNAs. Mol Nutr Food Res., 55. 1219-29.

D’Mello, J.P.F. (1982). Utilization of dietary purines and pyrimidines by non-ruminant animals. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 41., 301-308.

Duong A, Mousa SA. (2009). Current status of nucleoside antivirals in chronic hepatitis B. Drugs Today, 45. 751-61.

Evaldsson C, Ryden I, Uppugunduri S. (2007). Anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous uridine in an animal model of lung inflammation. Int Immunopharmacol., 7. 1025-32.

Evans, M. E., J. Tian, L. H. Gu, D. P. Jones, and T. R. Ziegler. (2005). Dietary Supplementation With Orotate and Uracil Increases Adaptive Growth of Jejunal Mucosa After Massive Small Bowel Resection in Rats. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 29(5). 315-21.

Fanslow WC, Kulkarni AD, Van Buren CT and Rudolph FB (1988). Effect of nucleotide restriction and supplementation on resistance to experimental murine candidiasis, J. Parenter. Enteral Nutr., 12. 49-52

Faelli A, Esposito G. (1970).Effect of inosine and its metabolites on intestinal iron absorption in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol., 19.2551-4.

Fontana L., Moreira E., Torres MI., Fernandez I., Rios A., Sanchez DMF., Gil A.(1998). Dietary nucleotides correct plasma and liver microsomal fatty acid alterations in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by oral intake of thioacetamide. J Hepatol.,28 .662–669

Frank, Benjamin S. (1977). Nucleic Acid Nutrition and Therapy. New York: Rainstone Pub., Print.

Frankic T., Pajk T., Rezar V., Levart A., Salobir J.(2006). The role of dietary nucleotides in reduction of DNA damage induced by T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol in chicken leukocytes. Food Chem Toxicol., 44. 1838–1844.

Fukumori Y, Maeda N, Takeda H, et al. (2000). Serum glucose and insulin response in rats administered with sucrose or starch containing adenosine, inosine or cytosine. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem., 64. 237-43.

Fukumori Y, Takeda H, Fujisawa T, et al. (2000). Blood glucose and insulin concentrations are reduced in humans administered sucrose with inosine or adenosine. J Nutr., 130. 1946-9.

Gallai V, Mazzotta G, Montesi S, et al. (1992). Effects of uridine in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy: an electrophysiological study. Acta Neurol Scand., 86. 3-7.

Gann, D. (1977). Ventricular tachycardia in a patient with the “Chinese restaurant syndrome”. South Med J., 70(7).879-81.

Giesecke, D., Tiemeyer, W. (1982). Availability and metabolism of purines of single cell proteins in monogastric animals. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 41. 319-327

Gil, A. (1983). Human milk nucleotides: Influences on the lipid metabolism of newborn infants. Abstract of Symposia XVI International Congress of Pediatrics. XVI International Congress of Pediatrics. Symposium Human milk: Recent knowledge, Manila, Philippines,82.

Gil, A. (2002). Modulation of the immune response mediated by dietary nucleotides. Eur J Clin Nutrition, 56(3). S1-4.

Gil A, Corral E, Martinez A, Molina JA. (1986). Effects of dietary nucleotides on the microbial pattern of faeces of at term newborn infants. J Clin Nutr Gastroenterol.,1.127-32.

Gil A, Lozano E, DeLucchi C & Pita A (1988). Changes in the fatty acid profiles of plasma lipid fractions induced by dietary nucleotides in infants born at term. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 42. 473-481.

Gil A, Pita M, Martinez A, Molina JÁ & Sanchez Medina F (1986). Effect of dietary nucleotides on the plasma fatty acids in at-term neonates. Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition, 40. 185-195.

Gil A, Sanchez-Medina F. (1981) Acid-soluble nucleotides of cow’s, goat’s and sheep’s milks, at different stages of lactation. Journal of Dairy Research. 48(1). 35-44.

Grimble GK. (1994). Dietary nucleotides & gut mucosal defense. Gut, Supp 1. S46.

Grimble GK. (1996). Why are dietary nucleotides essential nutrients? Br J Nutr., 76 (4). 475-8

Gross M, Reiter S, Zollner N. (1989). Metabolism of D-Ribose administered continuously to healthy persons and to patients with myoadenylate deaminase deficiency. Klin Wochenschr., 67. 1205–13.

Gross M, Zollner N. (1991). Serum levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide during long-term D-Ribose administration in man. Klin Wochenschr., 69. 31–6.

Guarneri P, Guarneri R, La Bella V, et al. (1985). Interaction between uridine and GABA-mediated inhibitory transmission: studies in vivo and in vitro. Epilepsia, 26. 666-71.
Guarneri P, Guarneri R, Mocciaro C, et al. (1983). Interaction of uridine with GABA binding sites in cerebellar membranes of the rat. Neurochem Res., 8. 1537-45.

Gur S, Ozturk B. (2000). Altered relaxant response to adenosine and adenosine 5′-triphosphate in the corpus cavernosum from men and rats with diabetes. Pharmacology, 60. 105-112.

Gutiérrez-Castrellón P1, Mora-Magaña I, Díaz-García L, Jiménez-Gutiérrez C, Ramirez-Mayans J, Solomon-Santibáñez GA. (2007). Immune response to nucleotide-supplemented infant formulae: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr., 98 Suppl 1. S64-7.

Hanlin, Pinyao Zhao, Yan Lei, Tianshui Li, and Inho Kim. (2015). Response to an Escherichia Coli K88 Oral Challenge and Productivity of Weanling Pigs Receiving a Dietary Nucleotides Supplement.  J Animal Sci Biotechnol., 6.49.

Harms VH & Stirling CE (1977). Transport of purine and nucleosides by in vitro rabbit ileum. American Journal of Physiology, 233. E47-E55.

Haskó G1, Kuhel DG, Chen JF, Schwarzschild MA, Deitch EA, Mabley JG, Marton A, Szabó C. (2000). Adenosine inhibits IL-12 and TNF-[alpha] production via adenosine A2a receptor-dependent and independent mechanisms. FASEB J., 14(13). 2065-74.

Hasko G, Sitkovsky MV, Szabo C. (2004) Immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of inosine. Trends Pharmacol Sci., 25. 152-7.

Hawkes JS, Gibson RA, Roberton D, et al. (2006). Effect of dietary nucleotide supplementation on growth and immune function in term infants: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr., 60. 254-64.

Hendler, PDR for Nutritional Supplements, Medical Economics Company, 2001.

Hess, JR and Greenberg, NA. (2012). The role of nucleotides in the immune and gastrointestinal systems: potential clinical applications. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 27(2). 281-94.

Holen, E, Bjorge OA, Jonsson R. (2006). Dietary nucleotides and human immune cells. II. Modulation of PBMC growth and cytokine secretion. Nutrition, 22. 90-6.

Holen, E., Jonsson R. (2004). Dietary Nucleotides and Intestinal Cell Lines: I. Modulation of Growth. Nutrition Research, 24(3).197-207.

Holstege, A, Gengenbacher, HM, Jehle, L, et al. (1991).Facilitated diffusion and sodium-dependent transport of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides in rat liver. Hepatology, 14. 373-80

Hu, Guang and Yang FQ. (2014). Biological Activities of Nucleosides and Their Analogues in Dietary Foods. CRC, 2 (2). 22-28.

Ichikawa S, Matsuda A. (2007). Nucleoside natural products and related analogs with potential therapeutic properties as antibacterial and antiviral agents. Expert Opin Ther Patents, 17. 487-98

Ingledew, W. M. (1999). Yeast – could you base a business on this bug? Biotechnology in the Feed Industry. Proceeding of Alltech´s 15th Annual Symposium (KA Jacques and TP Lyons, eds). Nottingham University Press, Nothingham, UK, 27-47.

Inoue,K., Obara,R., Akiba, T.,Hino, T., Oka, H.(2008). Determination of nucleotides in infant formula by Ion Exchange Liquid Chromatography. J. Agric. Food Chem., 56 (16). 6863-6867.

Isono K. (1991). Current progress on nucleoside antibiotics. Pharmacol Ther., 52. 269-86.
Iwasa Y., Iwasa M., Ohmori Y., Fukutomi T., Ogoshi S.(2000). The effect of the administration of nucleosides and nucleotides for parenteral use. Nutrition, 16.598–602.

Iwasa M, Iwasa Y, Ohmori Y, Ogoshi S. (2000). Effect of administration of nucleosides and nucleotides on protein turnover and the hypoxic myocardium. J Gastroenterol., 35 (12).25-8.

Jackson, C. et al. (1997). Dietary Nucleotides: Effects on Cell Proliferation in Rats Fed Folate/Methyl-Deficient Diets. Journal of Nutrition, 127(5). 834S-837S.

Johari, H, Parhizkar Z, Talebi E. (2008). Effects of adenine on the pituitary-gonad axis in newborns rats. Pak J Biol Sci.,11 . 2413-7.

Jones, CE, Thomas JX Jr, Devous MD, et al. (1977). Positive inotropic response to inosine in the in situ canine heart. Am J Physiol., 233. H438-43.

Jacobson, KA, Jarvis MF, Williams M. (2002). Purine and pyrimidine (P2) receptors as drug targets. J Med Chem., 45. 4057-93.
Jyonouchi H, (1994). Nucleotide Actions on the Humoral Immune Response. J. Nutr., 124.138S -143S.

Jyonouchi H., Sun S., Winship T., Kuchan MJ. (2003). Dietary ribonucleotides increase antigen-specific type 1 T-helper cells in the regional draining lymph nodes in young BALB/cJ mice. Nutrition, 19. 41–46.

Jyonouchi H1, Sun S, Winship T, Kuchan MJ. (2001). Dietary ribonucleotides modulate type 1 and type 2 T-helper cell responses againstovalbumin in young BALB/cJ mice. J Nutr., 131(4). 1165-70.

Jyonouchi H, Zhang L and Tomita Y, (1993). Immunomodulating actions of RNA and nucleotides on murine lymphocytes in vitro. Augmentation of antibody production to T-dependent antigens and expansion of T-helper cells. J. Nutr. Immunol., 22. 5-24.

Kavazis AN, Sobota JS, Kivipelto J, et al. (2002). Ribose supplementation in maximally exercising Thoroughbreds. Equine Vet J., 34.191–6S.

Kelsen, D. P.; Martin, D. and O’Neil, J. (1997). Phase-I trial of PN401, an oral prodrug of uridine, to prevent toxicity from fluorouracil in patients with advanced cancer. J Clin Oncol., 15. 1511-1517.

Kim SG, Ravi G, Hoffmann C, et al. (2002). p53-Independent induction of Fas and apoptosis in leukemic cells by an adenosine derivative, Cl-IB-MECA. Biochem Pharmacol., 63.871-80.

Kleinman, Ronald E. Pediatric Nutrition Handbook. 6th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2009. Page 810.

Koletzko B., Baker S., Cleghorn G., Neto UF., Gopalan S., Hernell O., Hock QS., Jirapinyo P., Lonnerdal B., Pencharz P., Pzyrembel H., Ramirez-Mayans J., Shamir R., Turck D., Yamashiro Y., Zong-Yi D.(2005). Global standard for the composition of infant formula: recommendations of an ESPGHAN Coordinated International Expert Group. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr., 41. 584–599.

Krylova IB, Kachaeva EV, Rodionova OM, et al. (2006). The cardioprotective effect of uridine and uridine-5′-monophosphate: the role of the mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channel. Exp Gerontol., 41.697-703.

Kuchan, M, Winship, T, Masor. M. (1998).Nucleotides in infant nutrition: effects on immune function. Reifen RM, Lerner A, Branski D, Heymans HAS, eds. Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Pediatric Nutrition. Basel: Karger, page 80-94.

Kulkarni AD et al. (1994). Dietary RNA is Important for Immune Functions. Journal of Nutrition, 124 (8).1442S-1446S.

Kulkarni, AD, Fanslow, WC, Rudolph, FB & Van Buren, CT (1986). Effect of dietary nucleotides on response to bacterial infections. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 10. 169-171.

Kulkarni, A. D.; Fanslow, W. C.; Rudolph, F. B. and Van Buren, C. T. (1987). Modulation of delayed hypersensitivity in mice by dietary nucleotide restriction. Transplantation, 44. 847-849.

Kulkarni, AD, Fanslow, WC, Drath, DB, Rudolph, FB and Van Buren CT, (1986a).Influence of dietary nucleotide restriction on bacterial sepsis and phagocytic cell function in mice Arch. Surg., 121. 169-172

Kulkarni, S. S., D. C. Bhately, A. R. Zander, C. T. Van Buren, F. B. Rudolph, K. A. Dicke, and A. D. Kulkarni. (1984). Functional impairment of T-lymphocytes in mouse radiation chimeras by a nucleotide-free diet. Exp. Hematol., 12. 694-699.

Kulkarni AD, (1992). Immunohemopoietic effects of dietary nucleotide restriction in mice. Transplantation, 53 (2). 467-72.

Koppel, P. (2003). Physiological and nutritional functions of nucleotides. Chemoforma LTD Switzerland. Glasgow Veterinary School February.

Laign, J. (2003). New Studies Reinforce Older Ones: RNA Therapy May Slow Down Aging. LE Magazine. August 1997 and January 2003.

Lalanne, M, Andrieux K, Couvreur, P. (2009). Strategies to increase the oral bioavailability of nucleoside analogs. Curr Med Chem., 16. 1391-9.

Lara, DR., Schmidt, A. , Frizzo, M., Burgos,J., Ramı́rez,G., and Souza,D. (2001). Effect of Orally Administered Guanosine on Seizures and Death Induced by Glutamatergic Agents. Brain Research, 912(2).176-80.

Leach, JL, Baxter, JH, Molitor, BE, Ramstack, MB, Masor, ML. (1995). Total potentially available nucleosides of human milk by stage of lactation. Am J Clin Nutr., 61.1224-30.

Lebrecht, D.; Vargas Infante, Y. A.; Setzer, B.; Kirschner, J. and Walker, U. A. (2007). Uridine supplementation antagonizes zalcitabine-induced microvesicular steatohepatitis in mice. Hepatology, 15. 72-79.

Lebrecht, D.; Deveaud, C.; Beauvoit, B.; Bonnet, J.; Kirschner, J. and Walker, U. A. (2008). Uridine supplementation antagonizes zidovudine-induced mitochondrial myopathy and hyperlactatemia in mice. Arthritis Rheum., 58. 318-326.

Lech-Maranda E, Korycka A, Robak T. (2009). Clofarabine as a novel nucleoside analogue approved to treat patients with haematological malignancies: mechanism of action and clinical activity. Mini Rev Med Chem., 9. 805-12.

Lee, D. N.; Liu, A. R.; Chen, Y. T.; Wang, R.C.; Lin, S. Y. and Weng, C. F. (2007). Effects of diets supplemented with organic acids and nucleotides on growth, immune responses and digestive tract development in weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 91. 508-518.

Lee, H. and F. Tirnady, Blood Evidence: How DNA is Revolutionizing the Way We Solve Crimes, Basic Books, 2003.

Lee SJ, Kim, KJ, Lee, CK, et al. (2005). Composition containing cordycepin as active component for treatment and prevention of diabetes. Korea KR2005063164-A, 2005-06-28.

Leite LH. (2000). The influence of dietary nucleotides and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the incorporation of [3H] arachidonic acid on experimental liver cirrhosis. Arch Latinoam Nutr., 50 (3). 257-64.

Lerner,A., Shamir, R. (2000). Nucleotides in Infant Nutrition: A Must or an Option. IMAJ, 2.

Lewis, W.; Day, B. J. and Copeland, W. C. (2003). Mitochondrial toxicity of NRTI antiviral drugs: an integrated cellular perspective. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 2. 812-822.

Levine, RL, Hoogenraad, NJ, Kretchmer, N. (1974). A review: biological and clinical aspects of pyrimidine metabolism. Pediatr Res., 8. 724-34.

Lindstad, RI, Teigen, K, Skjeldal, L. (2013). Inhibition of sorbitol dehydrogenase by nucleosides and nucleotides. Biochem Biophys Res Commun., 435(2). 202-8.

Li, N, Smith, TJ, Zong, MH. (2010). Biocatalytic transformation of nucleoside derivatives. Biotechnol Adv., 28. 348-66.

Li, Peng, Lewis,D., Gatlin,D. (2004). Dietary Oligonucleotides from Yeast RNA Influence Immune Responses and Resistance of Hybrid Striped Bass (Morone Chrysops × Morone Saxatilis) to Streptococcus Iniae Infection. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 16(5). 561-69.

Li, SP, Yang, FQ.(2008). Immunity enhancing medical nucleotide composition and its use in preparing immunosuppressive drug. China CN101306005-A, 2008-11-19.
Li ,SP, Yang, FQ, Yu, L. (2008). Immunosuppression medical nucleotide composition and its use in preparing immunosuppressive medicament. China CN101306004-A, 2008-11-19.

Liu, P., Wu,C., et al. (2014). Uridine Decreases Morphine-induced Behavioral Sensitization by Decreasing Dorsal Striatal Dopamine Release Possibly via Agonistic Effects at GABAA Receptors. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 24(9). 1557-566.

López-Navarro A. (1997). Age-related effect of dietary nucleotides on liver nucleic acid content in rats. Ann Nutr Metab., 41 (5). 324-30.

Lopez-Navarro, AT., Ortega, MA., Peragon, J., Buen,o JD., Gil, A., Sanchez, PA.(1996). Deprivation of dietary nucleotides decreases protein synthesis in the liver and small intestine in rats. Gastroenterology, 110. 1760–1769.

Life Extension Magazine. (2003). The Pioneer of Anti-Aging Skin Care. January : 37-41.

Life Extension Magazine. (1997). Revisiting Scientists Work. August: 5-8.

Maldonado, J., Navarro, J., Narbona, E., Gil, A. (2001). The influence of dietary nucleotides on humoral and cell immunity in the neonate and lactating infant. Early Hum Dev., 65. S69–S74.

Martinez-Augustin, O, Boza, J, Navarro, J, Martinez-Valverde, A, Araya, M, Gil, A. (1997). Dietary nucleotides may influence the humoral immunity in immunocompromised children. Nutrition, 13. 465-9.

Martinez-Augustin, O, Boza, JJ, Delpino, JI, Lucena J, Martinez-Valverde A , Gil, A (1997). Dietary nucleotides might influence the humoral immune response against cow’s milk proteins in preterm neonates. Biology of the Neonate, 71. 215-223.

Martinez-Puig, D.; Manzanilla, E. G.; Morales, J.; Borda, E.; Pérez, J. F.; Piñeiro, C. and Chetrit, C. (2007). Dietary nucleotide supplementation reduces occurrence of diarrhoea in early weaned pigs. Livestock Science, 108. 276–279.

Mason, BA, Ricci-Goodman, J, Koos, BJ. (1992).Adenosine in the treatment of maternal paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Obstet Gynecol., 80. 478-80.

Mateo, C.D.; Peters, D.N.; Dave, R.I.; Rosa, A. and Stein, H.H. (2004). Effects of dietary nucleotides on intestinal microbial activity and performance of newly weaned pigs. In: Proceedings of Alltech’s 20th Annual Symposium: re-imagining the feed industry (Eds: Lyons, TP and Jacques KA), Lexington, USA.

Matsumoto, Y, Adje, AA, Yamauchi, K, Kise, M, Nakasone, Y, Shinegawa, Y, Yokoyama, H and Yamamoto, S. (1995). Mixture of nucleosides and nucleotides increases bone marrow cell and peripheral neutrophil number in mice infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Biochemical and molecular roles of nutrients. J. Nutr., 125. 815-822.

McComsey, G. A. and Walker, U. A. (2004). Role of mitochondria in HIV lipoatrophy: insight into pathogenesis and potential therapies. Mitochondria, 4 (2-3). 11-8.

Mc Naughton L, Bentley DJ, Koeppel P. (2006). The effects of a nucleotide supplement on salivary IgA and cortisol after moderate endurance exercise. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 46(1). 84-9.

Mc Naughton, L, Bentley, D, Koeppel, P. (2007). The effects of a nucleotide supplement on the immune and metabolic response to short term, high intensity exercise performance in trained male subjects. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 47(1).112-8.

Meiji Milk Prod Co. Ltd. Food, especially milk for babies, containing edible fat – including balanced amounts of arachidonic and docosa: hexa: enoic acid, cholesterol and nucleotide. Japan JP3627043-B2, 2005-03-09.

Melji Milk Prod Co. Ltd. Immuno-modulating composition for foods and pharmaceuticals, etc. – contains nucleotide(s), nucleoside(s), nucleic acids and/or their components. Japan JP9323979-A, 1997-11-16.

Millatt, J. Helmy, S. (2000). Age Related Changes in Renal Cyclic Nucleotides and Eicosanoids in Response to Sodium Intake. Hypertension, 35(2).643.

Perrin, C.; Meyer, L.; Mujahid, C. and Blake, C. (2001). The analysis of 5‘-mononucleotides in infant formulae by HPLC. Food Chem., 74. 245-253.

Morgan, P.J.et al . (1989). Guanine nucleotides regulate the affinity of melatonin receptors on the ovine pars tuberalis. Neuroendocrinology, 50. 359362.

Morillas, J, Molto, L, Robles R, et al. (1994). Lipoprotein changes in small-for-gestational-age infants fed nucleotide-supplemented milk formula. Acta Paediatr., 83. 481-5.

Mossler, Mark. (2008). Florida Crop/Pest Profile: Sugarcane. EDIS New Publications RSS.

Nagafuchi S. (2000). Dietary nucleotides increase the proportion of a TCR gammadelta+ subset of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) and IL-7 production by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC); implications for modification of cellular and molecular cross-talk between IEL and IEC by dietary nucleotides. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem., 64(7). 1459-65.

Nagafuchi et al, (2000). Dietary nucleotides can up-regulate antigen specific TH1 immune responses in mice. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 122. 33-41.

Nagafuchi S., Hachimura S., Totsuka M., Takahashi T., Goto M., Yajima T., Kuwata T., Habu S., Kaminogawa S.(2000). Dietary nucleotides can up-regulate antigen-specific Th1 immune responses and suppress antigen-specific IgE responses in mice. Int Arch Allergy Immunol., 122. 33–41.

Navarro, J., A. Ruiz-Bravo, M. Jimenez-Valera, A. Gil (1996). Modulation of antibody-forming cell and mitogen-driven lymphoproliferative responses by dietary nucleotides in mice. Immunology Letters, 53. 141-145.

Navarro, J, Maldonado, J, Narbona, E, Ruiz-Bravo, A, García Salmerón, JL, Molina, JA, Gil, A. (1999). Influence of dietary nucleotides on plasma immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte subsets of preterm infants. Biofactors, 10(1).:67-76.

Nishizawa N, Harada Y and Fujimoto M, (1996) Effect of dietary nucleotides on cholesterol metabolism in mice. 70th Annual Meeting of Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology and Agrochemistry, Abstract, p. 15.

Norton, R., J. Leite, E. Vieira, E. Bambirra, C. Moura, G. Penna, and F. Penna.(2001). Use of Nucleotides in Weanling Rats with Diarrhea Induced by a Lactose Overload: Effect on the Evolution of Diarrhea and Weight and on the Histopathology of Intestine, Liver and Spleen. Braz J Med Biol Res Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 34(2). 195-202.

Nunez, M. C., Ayudarte,M., Morales, D., Suarez, MD, Gil,A.. (1990). Effect of dietary nucleotides on intestinal repair in rats with experimental chronic diarrhea. J. Parenter. Enteral. Nutr.,14.598-604.

O’Flaherty L. (1999). Immunonutrition and surgical practice. Proc Nutr Soc., 58 (4). 831-7.

Ogita K, Suita S, Taguchi T, Yamanouchi T, Masumoto K, Nakao M. (2002 ). Roles of nucleosides and nucleotide mixture in small bowel transplantation. Nutrition. 18(4).338-42.

Ogoshi S, Iwasa M, Yonezawa T and Tamiya T, (1985). Effect of nucleotide and nucleoside mixture on rats given total parenteral nutrition after 70% hepatectomy. J. Paranter. Enter. Nutr. 9. 339-342.

Ogoshi S, Iwasa M, Kitagawa S, Ohmori Y, Mizobuchi S, Iwasa Y and Tamiya T, (1988) Effects of total parenteral nutrition with nucleotide and nucleoside mixture on D-galacosamine-induced liver injury in rats. J. Paranter. Enter. Nutr. 12. 53-57.

Ohyanagi H, Nishimatsu S, Kanbara Y, et al. (1989). Effects of nucleosides and a nucleotide on DNA and RNA syntheses by the salvage and de novo pathway in primary monolayer cultures of hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. J Parenter Enteral Nutr., 13. 51-8.

Omran H. et al. (2003). D-Ribose improves diastolic function and quality of life in congestive heart failure patients: a prospective feasibility study. Euro. J. Heart Failure. 5(5).615.

Ortega MM, Nunez MC, Gil A and Sanchez-Pozo A, (1994). Dietary nucleotides accelerate intestinal recovery after food deprivation in old rats. Symposium: Nucleotides and Nutrition Supplement in J. Nutr. (WA Walker, ed.),124, pp1413-1418.

Ortega, MA, Gil, A & Sanchez-Pozo, A (1995). Maturation status of small intestine epithelium in rats deprived of dietary nucleotides. Life Sciences, 56. 1623-1630.

Ostojic, SM, Idrizovic, K, Stojanovic, MD. (2013). Sublingual nucleotides prolong run time to exhaustion in young physically active men. Nutrients, 5(11).4776-85.

Pauly, DF, Pepine, CJ. (2000). D-Ribose as a supplement for cardiac energy metabolism. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther., 5. 249–58.

Pita, ML, Fernandez, MR, De-Lucchi, C, et al. (1988). Changes in the fatty acids pattern of red blood cell phospholipids induced by type of milk, dietary nucleotide supplementation, and postnatal age in preterm infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr., 7. 740-7.

Pizzini, R, Kumar, S, Kulkarn,i Ad, Rudolph, FB.,Van Buren. CT, (1990).Dietary nucleotides reverse malnutrition and starvation-induced immunosuppression Arch. Surg.125. 86-90.

Pickering, L, Granoff, D, Erickson, JR, Masor, M, Cordle, CT, Scheller, JP, Winship, TR, Paule, CL, Hilty, MD. (1998).Modulation of the immune system by human milk and infant formula containing nucleotides. Pediatrics, 101.242-9.

Pickering, L, Masor, M, Granoff, D, Erickson, J, Paule, C, Hilty, M. (1996).Human milk levels of nucleotides in infant formula reduce incidence of diarrhea. FASEB J,554A.

Palermo, F., Cardinaletti,G., Cocci,P., Tibaldi,E., Polzonetti-Magni,A., MosconiG. (2013). Effects of Dietary Nucleotides on Acute Stress Response and Cannabinoid Receptor 1 MRNAs in Sole, Solea Solea. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 164(3). 477-82.

Pritchard, JB, O’Connor, N, Oliver, JM, et al. (1975). Uptake and supply of purine compounds by the liver. Am J Physiol., 229. 967-72.

Provost, M. (1998). Nucleotides, un nouveau potentiel. La revue de l’alimentation animale., 519. 52-53.

Quan, R, Barness, LA, Uauy, R. (1990). Do infants need nucleotide supplemented formula for optimal nutrition? J Pediatr Gastroentr Nutr., 11. 429-37.

Quan, R, Gil, A, Uauy, R. (1991). Effect of dietary nucleosides (DN) on intestinal growth and maturation after injury from radiation. Pediatr Res., 29.111A.

Quemeneur, L. et al. (2003). Differential Control of Cell Cycle, Proliferation, and Survival of Primary T Lymphocytes by Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotides. Journal of Immunology, 170.4986.

Ralevic, V, Burnstock, G. (1998). Receptors for purines and pyrimidines. Pharmacol Rev., 50. 413-92.

Ramírez M, (1991). Effect of dietary nucleotides and orotate on the blood levels of prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane (TXA2) in the weanling rat. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 43(1). 49-54.

Reeves, PG., Nielsen, FH., Fahey, GC.(1993). AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institute of Nutrition Ad Hoc Writing Committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J Nutr.,123.1939–1951.

Riera, J, Pons,V., Martinez-Puig,D., Chetrit,C., Tur,J., Pons,A., Drobnic, F.(2013). Dietary Nucleotide Improves Markers of Immune Response to Strenuous Exercise under a Cold Environment. J Int Soc Sports Nutr Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 10(1). 20.

Rigby PG.( 1971). The effect of “exogenous” RNA on the improvement of syngeneic tumor immunity. Cancer Research, 31. 4-6.

Robak T, Korycka A, Lech-Maranda E, et al. (2009). Current status of older and new purine nucleoside analogues in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases. Molecules, 14. 1183-226.
Rodriguez-Serrano F, Rios A, Marchal JA, et al. (2010). Differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells mediated by cell confluence and/or exogenous nucleoside supplementation. Cells Tissues Organs, 191. 478-88.

Roselli, M.; Britti, M. S.; Le Huërou-Luron, I.; Marfaing, H.; Zhu, W. Y. and Mengheri, E. (2007). Effect of different plant extracts and natural substances (PENS) against membrane damage induced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 in pig intestinal cells. Toxicology In vitro, 21. 224–229.

Rudolph FB (1994). Symposium: Dietary nucleotides: a recently demonstrated requirement for cellular development and immune function. Introduction. Journal of Nutrition, 124. 1431s-1432s.

Rudolph FB.( 1998). The metabolic effects of enterally administered ribonucleic acids. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 1 (6). 527-30.

Rudolph, F.B., A.D. Kulkarni, W.C. Fanslow, R.P. Pizzini, S. Kumar, C.T. Van Buren. (1990). Role of RNA as a dietary source of pyrimidines and purines in immune function. Nutrition. 6 (1).45-52.

Sakai, M; Taniguchi, K; Mamoto, K; Ogawa, H; Tabata, M. (2001). Immunostimulant effects of nucleotide isolated from yeast RNA on carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Journal of Fish Diseases, 24(8). 433-439.

Sánchez CL, Cubero J, Sánchez J, Chanclón B, Rivero M, Rodríguez AB, Barriga C. (2009). The possible role of human milk nucleotides as sleep inducers. Nutritional Neuroscience, 12(1).2-8.

Sánchez-Pozo A and Gil A. (2002) Nucleotides as semiessential nutritional components. British Journal of Nutrition, 87 (1).S135-7.

Sanchez-Pozo, A., J. Morillas, I. Molto, R. Robles, A. Gils. (1994). Dietary nucleotides influence lipoprotein metabolism in newborn infants. Pediatr. Res, 35. 112-116.

Sanchez-Pozo A, Ramirez M, Gil A, Maldonado J, van Biervliet JP, Rosseneu M. (1995) Dietary nucleotides enhance plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity and apolipoprotein A-IV concentration in preterm newborn infants. Pediatr Res; 37.328-33.

Sanchez-Pozo A, Pita ML, Martinez A, Molina JA, Sanchez-Medina R and Gil A, (1985). Effect of dietary nucleotides upon lipoprotein pattern of new-born infants. Nutr. Res. 6. 53-57

Sanderson, I.R., H. Youping. (1994). Nucleotide uptake and metabolism by intestinal epithelial cells. The journal of Nutrition. Nucleotides and nutrition, 124(1S). 131S-137S.

Sato N. ( 1995). Effects of dietary nucleotides on lipid metabolism and learning ability of rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 59(7).1267-71.

Sato, N.; Murakami, Y.; Nakano, T.; Sugawara, M.; Kawakami, H; Idota, T. and Nakajima, I. (1995). Effects of dietary nucleotides on lipid metabolism and learning ability in rats. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem, 59. 1267-1271.

Sauer N., Bauer E., Vahjen W., Zentek J., Mosenthin R.( 2010). Nucleotides modify growth of selected intestinal bacteria in vitro. Livest Sci,133.161–163.

Sauer, N.; Eklund, M.; Roth, S.; Rink, F.; Jezierny, D; Bauer, E and Mosenthin, R. (2011). Short-term effect of dietary yeast nucleotide supplementation on small intestinal enzyme activities, bacterial populations and metabolites and ileal nutrient digestibilities in newly weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Online. 1439-0396.

Savaiano DA, Ho CY, Chu V, Clifford AJ. ( 1981). Metabolism of orally and intravenously administered purines in rats. J Nutr, 110. 1793-1804.

Sawmiller DR, Chou CC. (1992). Role of adenosine in postprandial and reactive hyperemia in canine jejunum. The American Journal of Physiology. 263(4 Pt 1).G487-93.

Saydoff, J. A.; Liu, L. S.; Garcia, R. A.; Hu Z, Li. D. and Von Borstel, R.W. (2003). Oral uridine pro-drug PN401 decreases neurodegeneration, behavioral impairment, weight loss and mortality in the 3- nitropropionic acid mitochondrial toxin model of Huntington’s disease. Brain Research, 994 (1). 44-54.

Saydoff, J. A.; Garcia, R. A.; Browne, S. E.; Liu, L.; Sheng, J.; Brenneman, D.; Hu Z, Cardin. S.; Gonzalez, A. von Borstel, R.W.; Gregorio, J.; Burr, H. and Beal, M. F. (2006). Oral uridine pro-drug PN401 is neuroprotective in the R6/2 and N171-82Q mouse models of Huntington’s disease. Neurobiol. Dis., 24 (3). 455-65.

Schaller, J. P.; Kucham, M. J.; Thomas, D. L.; Cordle, C. T.; Winship, T. R.; Buck, R. H.; Baggs, G. E. and Wheeler, J. G. (2004). Effect of dietary nucleotides on infant immune status. Part 1: Humoral responses. Pediatr. Res., 56. 883-890.

Schaller, J. P.; Buck, R. H. and Rueda, R. (2007). Ribonucleotides: Conditionally essential nutrients shown to enhance immune function and reduce diarrheal disease in infants. Semin. Fetal Neonatal Med., 12. 35–44.

Schlimme, E., D. Martin, and H. Meisel. (2000). Nucleosides and nucleotides: natural bioactive substances in milk and colostrum. Br. J. Nutr. 84.S59.

Schmidt AP, Lara DR, de Faria Maraschin J, et al. (2000).Guanosine and GMP prevent seizures induced by quinolinic acid in mice. Brain Res, 864. 40-43.

Schneider A, Zimmer HG. (1991). Effect of inosine on function and adenine nucleotide content of the isolated working rat heart: studies of postischemic reperfusion. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol; 17. 466-73.

Scott, I. (2010). The role of mitochondria in mammalian antiviral defense system. Mitochondrion, 10. 316–320.

Setzer, B.; Lebrecht, D. and Walker, U. A. (2008). Pyrimidine nucleoside depletion sensitizes to the mitochondrial hepatotoxicity of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor stavudine. Am J Pathol., 172. 681-690.

Shanker KS & Tocco DJ (1960). Active transport of some pyrimidines across the rat intestinal epithelium. American Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 128. 115-121.

Shen, Y. B.; Piao, X. S.; Kim, S. W.; Wang, L.; Liu, P.; Yoon, I. and Zhen, Y. G. (2009). Effects of yeast culture supplementation on growth performance, intestinal health, and immune response of nursery pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 87. 2614–2624.

Sheng SH., Zhang XM., Feng YQ., Wei XB., Wang DM., Hou ZL.(1998). Studies on the safety of nucleic acid oral solution. Chin J Biochem Pharm., 20. 87–89.

Shim JH, Hong Z, Wu JZ. (2006). Recent patents on nucleoside and nucleotide inhibitors for HCV. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov.,1. 323-31.

Shinya N et al. (2002). Dietary nucleotides increase mucosal IgA response and secretion of TGF. Cytotechnology 40.49-58.

Siahanidou. (2004). Serum Lipids in Preterm Infants Fed a Formula Supplemented With Nucleotides. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, 38(1).56-61.

Simons C, Wu Q, Htar TT. (2005). Recent advances in antiviral nucleoside and nucleotide therapeutics. Curr Top Med Chem., (5). 1191-203.

Sinai, Y., A. Kaplun, Y. Hai, B. Halperin. (1974). Enhancement of resistance to infectious diseases by oral administration of brewer’s yeast. Infection and Immunology, 9. 781-787.

Singhal, A., K. Kennedy, J. Lanigan, H. Clough, W. Jenkins, A. Elias-Jones, T. Stephenson, P. Dudek, and A. Lucas. (2010). Dietary Nucleotides and Early Growth in Formula-Fed Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatrics, 126.4.

Singhal A, Macfarlane G, Macfarlane S, Lanigan J, Kennedy K, Elias-Jones A, Stephenson T, Dudek P, Lucas A. (2008). Dietary nucleotides and fecal microbiota in formula-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87(6).1785-92.

Slezia A, Kekesi AK, Szikra T, et al. (2004). Uridine release during aminopyridine-induced epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis., 16. 490-9.

Sonkawade, S. D., Naik, G.R. ( 2012). Screening of dietary nucleotides from natural sources for therapeutic uses . Annals of Phytomedicine 1(1). 9-19.

Suchner, U., K. S. Kuhn, and P. Fürst.(2000).The Scientific Basis of Immunonutrition. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society Proc. Nutr. Soc.59(4). 556.

Sukumar et al. (1999). Dietary Nucleotides Augment Distal Colitis in Rats. Journal of Nutrition. 129.1377-1381.

Sukumar P, Loo A, Magur E, Nandi J, Oler A, Levine RA. (1997). Dietary supplementation of nucleotides and arginine promotes healing of small bowel ulcers in experimental ulcerative ileitis. Dig Dis Sci., 42(7).1530-6.

Sutinen, J.; Walker, U. A. and Sevastianova, K. (2007). Uridine supplementation for the treatment of antiretroviral therapyassociated lipoatrophy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Antivir Ther.,12. 97-105.

Szabo G, Stumpf N, Radovits T, et al.( 2006). Effects of inosine on reperfusion injury after heart transplantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg., 30. 96-102.

Tahmasebi KA., Keyvanshokooh S., Nematollahi A., Mahmoudi N., Pasha ZH. (2011). Dietary administration of nucleotides to enhance growth, humoral immune responses, and disease resistance of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. Fish Shellfish Immunol.,30.189–193.

Takeoka, Y., Tanino, T., Sekiguchi, M., Yonezawa, S., Sakagami, M., Takahashi, F., Matsuda, A. (2014). Expansion of Antibacterial Spectrum of Muraymycins toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters,5(5), 556–560.

Tanaka M, Lee K, Martinez-Augustin O, He Y, Sanderson IR, Walker WA. (1996). Exogenous nucleotides alter the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of human small intestinal epithelium. The Journal of Nutrition. 126(2).424-33.

Tanaka R., Mutai M. (1980). Improved medium for selective isolation and enumeration of bifidobacterium. Appl Environ Microbiol.,40. 866–869.

Tepaske R, et al. Effect of preoperative oral immune-enhancing nutritional supplements on patients at high risk of infection after cardiac surgery: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 358: 696-701

Thorell L, Sjoberg L-B, Hernell O. (2001). Nucleotides in human milk: sources and metabolism by the newborn infant. Pediatr Res.,40. 845-52.

Tibbets, G. W. (2002). Nucleotides from yeast extract: potential to replace animal protein source in food animal diets. Nutritional Biotechnology in the Food and Feed Industries. Pro. Alltech´s,18th Annual Symposium (Jacques KA and Lyons TP, eds). Nottingham University Press, UK, 435-443.

Torres M. I. (1997). Effect of Dietary Nucleotides on Degree of Fibrosis and Steatosis. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 42 (6).1.

Torres-Lopez MI, Fernandez I, Fontana L, et al. (1996). Influence of dietary nucleotides on liver structural recovery and hepatocyte binuclearity in cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide. Gut, 38. 260-4.

Tort AB, Mantese CE, dos Anjos GM, et al. (2004). Guanosine selectively inhibits locomotor stimulation induced by the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine. Behav Brain Res., 154. 417-22.

Tsujinaka T1, Kishibuchi M, Iijima S, Yano M, Monden M.( 1999). Nucleotides and intestine. J Parenter Enteral Nutr., 23(5). S74-7.

Uauy, R. (1989). Dietary Nucleotides and requirements in early life. Textbook of Gastroenterology and nutrition in Infancy, 2nd ed. (Lebenthal E.ed.). 265-280.

Uauy, R. (1994). Nonimmune system responses to dietary nucleotides. The journal of Nutrition. Nucleotides and nutrition. 124(1S). 157S-159S.

Uauy R, Quan R, Gil A. (1994). Role of nucleotides in intestinal development and repair: implications for infant nutrition. J Nutr., 124. 1436S-41S.

Uauy, R. G. Stringel, R. Thomas, and R. Quan. (1990). Effect of dietary nucleotides on growth and maturation of the developing gut in the rat. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.,10.497-503.

Usami M1, Saitoh Y.( 1997). The effect of a nucleotide-nucleoside solution on hepatic regeneration in rats after partial hepatectomy and in primary monolayer culture of hepatocytes. Nutrition. 13(4).365-8.

USDA. National Organic Standards Board Handling SubCommitee. August 21, 2012. https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/Nucleo%20NOSB%20Formal%20Recommendation.pdf

USDA. Petition to Include Nucleotides Isolated from Yeast RNA Hydrolysate on the National List of Substances Allowed as Ingredients in or on Processed Products Labeled as “organic” or “made with Organic (specified Ingredients or Food Group(s)) https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/Nucleotides.pdf

Van Buren, C. T.; Kulkarni, A. D.; Fanslow, W. C. and Rudolph, F. B. (1990). Dietary nucleotides, a requirement for helper / inducer T lymphocytes. Transplantation, 40. 694-697.

Van Buren, C. T., A. D. Kulkarni, V. B Schandle, F. B. Rudolph. (1983). The influence of dietary nucleotides on cell mediated immunity. Transplantation, 36.350-352.

Van Buren C.T., Kulkarni A.D.. Rudolph F.B., (1994). The Role of Dietary Nucleotides in Adult Nutrition, The Journal of Nutrition, 124.124S-160S.

Van Buren CT, Rudolph F. (1997). Dietary nucleotides: a conditional requirement. Nutrition,13(5).470-2.

Van Buren CT, Rudolph FB, Kulkarni AD, Pizzini RP, Fanslow WC and Kumar S, (1990). Reversal of immunosuppression induced by a protein-free diet: Comparison of nucleotides, fish oil and arginine Crit. Care Med. 18. 114-117.

Van Buren CT, Kulkarni AD and Rudoph FB, (1983). Synergistic effect of a nucleotide-free diet and cyclosporine on allograft survival Transplant. Proc. 15.(Suppl. 1). 2967-2968.

Venhoff, N.; Lebrecht, D. and Deveaud, C. (2010). Oral uridine supplementation antagonizes the peripheral neuropathy and encephalopathy induced by antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. AIDS, 24. 345-52.

Verkerk R. (2011). Nucleotides: Speculation on lifestyle-induced essentiality. NHD Clinical., 64.29-32.

Vinadé, Elsa Regina, André Prato Schmidt, Marcos Emı́lio Santos Frizzo, Ivan Izquierdo, Elaine Elisabetsky, and Diogo Onofre Souza. (2003). Chronically Administered Guanosine Is Anticonvulsant, Amnesic and Anxiolytic in Mice. Brain Research, 977(1). 97-102.

Vinas Pilar; Natalia Campillo; Ignacio Lo Pez-Garci A.; Sara Marti Nez-Lo Pez; Isabel Vasallo And Manuel Hern Andez-Co Rdoba (2009). Anion Exchange Liquid Chromatography for the determination of nucleotides in Baby and/or Functional Foods. J. Agric. Food Chem., 57 (16).7245-7249.

Virág L1, Szabó C. (2001). Purines inhibit poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation and modulate oxidant-induced cell death. FASEB J.,15(1).99-107.

Virupakhsi, S. and Naik, G.R. (2007). Purification of DNA from chloroplast and mitochondria of Sugarcane. Current Science, 92. 1613 – 1619.

Vivet-Boudou V, Didierjean J, Isel C, et al. (2006). Nucleoside and nucleotide inhibitors of HIV-1 replication. Cell Mol Life Sci; 63. 163-86.

Wade, Nicholas. Your Body is Younger Than You Think. August 2, 2005. New York Times, Print.

Walker, U. A.; Langmann, P. and Miehle, N. (2004). Beneficial effects of oral Uridine in mitochondrial toxicity. AIDS, 18 (7).1085-1086.

Walker, U. A.; Venhoff, N.; Koch, E.; Olschweski, M.; Schneider, J. and Setzer, B. (2003). Uridine abrogates mitochondrial toxicity relatd to nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HepG2 cells. Antivir Ther., 8.463-470.

Wang AP, Hu XY, Liu WX. (2009). Liquid milk with additive nucleotide suitable for baby of 6 to 12 months old. China CN101427794-A, -05-13.

Wang L, Albrecht MA, Wurtman RJ.( 2007). Dietary supplementation with uridine-5′-monophosphate (UMP), a membrane phosphatide precursor, increases acetylcholine level and release in striatum of aged rat. Brain Res., 1133.42-8.

Wang LF., Le GW., Shi YH., Wang F.( 2003). Effects of exogenous nucleotides on immune function in mice. Acta Nutrimenta Sinica.,25. 298–301.

Wang J, Wang M, Huang Y. ( 2013). Acute liver failure resulting from discontinuation of nucleoside analogues in chronic hepatitis B patients: a report of two cases. Scand J Infect Dis., 45. 158-60.

Weinberg, M. E.; Roman, M. C.; Jacob, P.; Wen, M. and Cheung, P. (2011). Enhanced Uridine Bioavailability Following Administration of a Triacetyluridine-Rich Nutritional Supplement, PLoS ONE,6(2), e14709. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014709

Wilson M. The Importance of Nucleotides. www.exoticpet.net.

Witter, J., P. Gallagher, D. Williamson, M. Goddard, and S. Trappe. (1999). Effect of ribose supplementation on nucleotide depletion following high-intensity exercise in human skeletal muscle. June. Presentation at American College of Sports Medicine 46th Annual Meeting.


Woltil HA, van Beusekom CM, Siemensma AD, et al. (1995). Erythrocyte and plasma cholesterol ester long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of low-birth-weight babies fed preterm formula with and without ribonucleotides: comparison with human milk. Am J Clin Nutr., 62. 943-9.

Wurtman, Richard. (2014). A Nutrient Combination That Can Affect Synapse Formation. Nutrients, 6(4). 1701-710.

Xie L, Kang H, Xu Q, Chen MJ, Liao Y, Thiyagarajan M, O’Donnell J, Christensen DJ, Nicholson C, Iliff JJ, Takano T, Deane R, Nedergaard M.( 2013).Sleep drives metabolite clearance from the adult brain. Science, 342(6156) 373-7.

Xu, M., Ma, Y., Xu, L., Xu, Y., & Li, Y. (2013). Developmental Effects of Dietary Nucleotides in Second-Generation Weaned Rats. Journal of Medicinal Food, 16(12). 1146–1152.

Xu, Meihong, Rui Liang, Qianying Guo, Shuangjia Wang, Ming Zhao, Zhaofeng Zhang, Junbo Wang, and Yong Li. (2014). Lifetime Assessment of Dietary Nucleotides Consumption in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 2(11). 806-13.

Xu., Meihong, Yi Ma., Linlin Xu., Yajun Xu., Yong Li. (2012). Multigeneration assessment of dietary nucleotides consumption in waened rats. Birth Defects Res., Part B(95).460–466.

Xu, M., R. Liang, Q. Guo, S. Wang, M. Zhao, Z. Zhang, Junbo Wang, and Yong Li.(2013). Dietary Nucleotides Extend the Life Span in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 17(3). 223-29.

Xu XW, Chen YG. (2006). Current therapy with nucleoside/nucleotide analogs for patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int., 5. 350-9.

Yamamoto S, Wang MF, Adjei AA, et al. (1997). Role of nucleosides and nucleotides in the immune system, gut reparation after injury, and brain function. Nutrition, 13. 372-4.

Yamauchi K. (2002). Dietary nucleotides prevent decrease in cellular immunity in ground-based microgravity analog. J Appl Physiol., 93 (1).161-6.

Yamaguchi N, Kodama M, Ueda K. (1985). Diadenosine tetraphosphate as a signal molecule linked with the functional state of rat liver. Gastroenterology, 89. 723-31.

Yamamoto O. Health food for reducing cholesterol and providing anticancer effect, contains steron guanine type compound. Japan JP2006025776-A.

Yamasa SSK. Agents for improvement of emotional disturbance – due to anxiety or depression, contain nucleotide(s). Japan JP3343487- B2, 2002-11-11.

Yan HW, Yi M, Yan XC. Nucleic acid gene Chinese and western medicinal product both for medicine and food used for preventing and curing poultry animal and human being grippe and its manufacturing method. China CN1559561-A, 2005-01-05.

Yasko (Arrow), Bates, Reddoch, Hansakul, Dale, Miller (2002). Biosensor detection of triplex formation by modified oligonucleotides. Anal. Biochem.,307(2). 235-43.

Yasko (Arrow), Dale, RMK, Woolf, T., Thompson, T., Gatton, S. (1996). On the Quality of Antisense Oligonucleotides. Antisense and Nucleic Acid Drug Dev., 6(3). 151.

Yasko, A., & Srivastava, S. Synthesis of deuterated ribo nucleosides, N-protected phosphoramidites, and oligonucleotides. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 9365607

Yasko, (Arrow), RMK Dale, S.Raza, S. Srivastava. Oligonucleotide phosphate esters. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 6015886.

Yasko, (Arrow), Tod Woolf, RMK Dale. Three Component Chimeric Antisense Oligonucleotides. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 7691996 and 6958239.

Yasko, (Arrow), RMK Dale,T. Thompson. Oligonucleotide Containing Pharmacological Compositions and Their Use. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 8188259 and 8183361.

Yasko, (Arrow), RMK Dale, T. Thompson. Therapeutic Antisense Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 20030045490.

Yasko, (Arrow), RMK Dale, S.Gatton. Pulmonary delivery of protonated/acidified nucleic acids. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 6211162.

Yasko, (Arrow), RMK Dale, S.Gatton,T. Thompson. Protonated/acidified nucleic acids and methods of use. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 6211349.

Yau KI, Huang CB, Chen W, Chen SJ, Chou YH, Huang FY, Kua KE, Chen N, McCue M, Alarcon PA, Tressler RL, Comer GM, Baggs G, Merritt RJ, Masor ML. (2003). Effect of nucleotides on diarrhea and immune responses in healthy term infants in Taiwan. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 36(1).37-43.

Ye JH and Rajendran VM. (2009). Adenosine: An immune modulator of inflammatory bowel diseases. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 15(36). 4491–4498.

Yiping, Ren; Jingshun, Zhang; Xiaodan, Song; Xiaochun, Chen and Duo, Li (2011). Simultaneous Determination of 5′-Monophosphate Nucleotides in Infant Formulas by HPLC–MS. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 49.332-337.

Yokoyama H., Fujiwara H., Watanabe H. (2004).Dietary nucleosides and nucleotides do not affect tumor incidence but reduce amyloidosis incidence in B6C3F1 mice irradiated with californium-252. Nutrition, 20.383–389.

Yokoyama M. Health food or drink used as pharmaceutical – contains cytidine and choline. Japan JP2000004835-A, 2000-01-11.

Yu, VY. (2002). Scientific rationale and benefits of nucleotide supplementation of infant formula. Journal of Pediatrics & Child Health,38 (6). 543-549.

Zehender M, Jeron A, Faber T, et al. (1996). Adenosine in treating cardiac arrhythmias. J Auton Pharmacol., 16. 329-31.

Zhao, Jie, Jia-Xi Zhao, and Ya-Jun Xu. (2013). Exogenous Nucleotides Antagonize the Developmental Toxicity of Ethanol In Vitro. BioMed Research International,1-8. Web.

Zhao Q, Marolewski A, Rusche JR, et al. (2006). Effects of uridine in models of epileptogenesis and seizures. Epilepsy Res., 70. 73-82.

Zimmer HG, Ibel H, Suchner U, Schad H. (1984). Ribose intervention in the cardiac pentose phosphate pathway is not species-specific. Science, 223. 712–4.

Zimmer HG, Ibel H. (1984). Ribose accelerates the repletion of the ATP pool during recovery from reversible ischemia of the rat myocardium. J Mol Cell Cardiol.,16. 863–6.

Zhou XX, Littler E.( 2006). Nucleoside analogs as anti-HBV agents. Curr Top Med Chem., 6. 851-65.

Zomborsky-Kovacs, M., S. Tuboly, H. Biro, L. Bardos, P. Soos, A. Toth, G. Tornyos. (1998). The effect of b-carotene and nucleotide base supplementation on haematological, biochemical and certain immunological parameters in weaned pigs. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences,7. 245-251

Thanks for reading Feel Good Nucleotides!


Continue with Feel Good Biochemistry

Also available online for FREE!

Feel Good Biochemistry is an interactive guide intended to help you
and your doctor through biochemical testing, taking a thorough look
at the science and rationale behind the personalized comments
Dr. Amy writes on each test.

Interested in the Yasko Protocol,
but not sure how to start?

Download the FREE Companion Guide

This comprehensive PDF leads you through the Methylation Cycle,
SNPs, biochemical testing, Dr. Amy’s suggested dosages, and more!