Ordinarily, I would not suggest reading through a list of references. The concept of doing so is reminiscent of ‘words of wisdom’ given to me and my sister by my mother when we were young. If my sister and I were bored on a rainy Saturday, she would suggest, “Why not read the phone book?” You might be surprised by what you could learn.” My mother was a strong believer in reading anything and everything, and not too fond of watching too much TV, which she affectionately called ‘the idiot box’. So, it is with this background that I have chosen my words carefully when I suggest that you at least glance through the reference list that follows. I have taken the time to include the title of all of the journals, patents, books, etc that I have utilized as background for this book on Nucleotides. These references span more than 70 years, with the first article concerning nucleotides dating back to 1944 and current articles as recent as 2016. Perusing the titles gives you an inkling of the vast research support for the use of nucleotides over a wide range of health topics. Glancing through the references also helps to illustrate that this research originates from countries all over the world. This nucleic acid research has been conducted throughout the animal kingdom, from work in infants and adult humans, to a range of animals and fish. The far reaching applicability of the use of nucleotides is both overwhelming as well comforting, giving a sense of security that this field has been widely researched in countries all over the world, covering a multitude of topics, used in many animal species over the course of decades.

Abtahi, Behrooz; Yousefi, Morteza and Abdolmohammad, A. K. (2011). Influence of dietary nucleotides supplementation on growth, body composition and fatty acid profile of Beluga sturgeon juveniles (Huso huso). Aquaculture Research, 1. 1–7.

Adjei AA1, Jones JT, Enriquez FJ, Yamamoto S.(1999). Dietary nucleosides and nucleotides reduce Cryptosporidium parvum infection in dexamethasone immunosuppressed adult mice. Exp Parasitol., 92(3). 199-208.

Adjei AA, Yamauchi K, Chan YC, et al. (1996). Comparative effects of dietary nucleoside-nucleotide mixture and its components on endotoxin induced bacterial translocation and small intestinal injury in protein deficient mice. Gut, 38. 531-7.

Adjei AA, Yamamoto S. (1995). A dietary nucleoside-nucleotide mixture inhibits endotoxin-induced bacterial translocation in mice fed protein-free diet. J Nutr., 125. 42-8.

Aggett P., Leach JL., Rueda R., MacLean WC., Jr. (2003). Innovation in infant formula development: a reassessment of ribonucleotides in 2002. Nutrition, 19. 375–384

Agteresch HJ, et al. (1999). Adenosine triphosphate: established and potential clinical applications. Drugs, 58(2). 211-232.

Aljanabi, S. M. and Martinez, Iciar (1997). Universal and rapid salt extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR-based techniques. Nucleic Acid Research, 25 (22). 4692-4693.

Almansouri HMSH, Yamamoto S, Kulkarni AD, Ariizumi M, Adjei AA, Yamauchi K. (1996). Effect of dietary nucleosides and nucleotides on murine allergic rhinitis. Am J Med Sci., 312(5). 202-5.

Arnaud, Alexandra, José María López-Pedrosa, María Isabel Torres, and Ángel Gil. (2003). Dietary Nucleotides Modulate Mitochondrial Function of Intestinal Mucosa in Weanling Rats with Chronic Diarrhea. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 37(2). 124-31.

Arnaud A. (2003). Exogenous nucleosides alter the intracellular nucleotide pool in hepatic cell cultures. Implications in cell proliferation and function. Clin Nutr., 22 (4). 391-9.

Arslanoglu S, Bertino E, Nicocia M, et al. (2011). WAPM Working Group on Nutrition: potential chronobiotic role of human milk in sleep regulation. J Perinat Med., 40. 1-8

Avery, O. T., MacLeod, C. M., & McCarty, M. (1944). Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal types: Induction of transformation by a desoxyribonucleic acid fraction isolated from Pneumococcus Type III. The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 79(2). 137–158.

Balcarek, K.; Venhoff, N.; Deveaud, C. (2010). Role of pyrimidine depletion in the mitochondrial cardiotoxicity of nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr., 10. 1-5.

Ballarin M, Herrera-Marschitz M, Casas M, et al. (1987). Striatal adenosine levels measured in vivo by microdialysis in rats with unilateral dopamine denervation. Neurosci Lett., 83. 338-44.
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Banasch, M.; Goetze, O.; Knyhala, K. (2006). Uridine supplementation enhances hepatic mitochondrial function in thymidine-analogue treated HIV-infected patients. AIDS, 20. 1554-1556.

Bastamante, S. A., N. Sanches, J. Crosier, D. Miranda, G. Colombo, and M. J. S. Miller. (1994). Dietary nucleotides: effects on the gastrointestinal system in swine. J. Nutr., 124. 149S-156S.

Becher, F.; Pruvost, A. G.; and Schlemmer, D. D. (2003). Significant levels of intracellular stavudine triphosphate are found in HIV-infected zidovudine-treated patients. AIDS, 17. 555-561.

Belo A., Marchbank T., Fitzgerald A., Ghosh S., Playford RJ. (2006).Gastroprotective effects of oral nucleotide administration. Gut, 55. 165–171.

Benowitz LI, Goldberg DE, Irwin N.(2002). Inosine stimulates axon growth in vitro and in the adult CNS. Prog Brain Res., 137. 389-99.

Bianchi R, Sciarretta Birolo R, Tsankova V, and Tacconi MT.(1999). Deficiency of methyl donor pathway affects myelination in developing rats. J. Neurochem., 73 .S155.

Bonora, S.; Boffito, M. D. and Avolio, A. (2004). Detection of stavudine concentrations in plasma of HIV-infected patients taking zidovudine. AIDS, 18. 577-578.

Bower RH, Cerra FB, Bershadsky B, Licari JJ, Hoyt DB, Jensen GL, Van Buren CT, Rothkopf MM, Daly JM, Adelsberg BR. (1995).Early enteral administration of a formula (Impact) supplemented with arginine, nucleotides, and fish oil in intensive care unit patients: results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Crit Care Med. 23(3) .436-49.

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Brunser O, Espinoza J, Araya M, Cruchet S, Gil A. (1994). Effect of dietary nucleotide supplementation on diarrhoeal disease in infants. Acta Paediatr., 83.188-91.

Buck RH, Thomas DL, Winship TR, et al. (2004). Effect of dietary ribonucleotides on infant immune status. Part 2: Immune cell development. Pediatr Res., 56. 891-900.

Bueno J, Torres A, Almendros A, Carmona R, Nunez MC and Gil A, (1994) Effect of dietary nucleotides on small intestinal repair after diarrhoea. Histological and ultrastructural changes. Gut, 35. 926-933.

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Carr, A.; Miller, J.; Law, M. and Cooper, D. A. (2000). A syndrome of lipoatrophy, lactic acidaemia and liver dysfunction associated with HIV nucleoside analogue therapy: contribution to protease inhibitor related lipodystrophy syndrome. AIDS, 14. F25-F32.

Carver, J. D. (1994). Dietary nucleotides: cellular immune, intestinal, and hepatic system effects. J. Nutr., 124.144S-148S.

Carver, JD. (1999). Dietary nucleotides: effects on the immune and gastrointestinal systems. Acta Paediatrica., 88. 83-88.

Carver, J. D., W. I. Cox, and L. A. Barness. (1990). Dietary nucleotide effects upon murine natural killer cell activity and macrophage activation. J. Parenter. Enteral Nutr., 14. 18-22.

Carver JD et al. (2002). The Effects of Dietary Nucleotides on Intestinal Blood Flow. Pediatric Research, 52 (3). 425-429.

Carver, J. D.; Pimentel, B.; Cox, W. I. and Barness, L. A. (1991). Dietary nucleotide effects upon immune function in infants. Pediatrics, 88. 359-363.

Carver JD, Sosa R, Saste M, Kuchan M. (2004). Dietary nucleotides and intestinal blood flow velocity in term infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 39(1).38-42.

Carver JD., Stromquist CI.(2006). Dietary nucleotides and preterm infant nutrition. J Perinatol., 26. 443–444

Carver JD, Walker WA. (1995). The role of nucleotides in human nutrition. Nutr Biochem., 6 .58-72.

Chen TH, Wang MF, Liang YF, et al. (2000). A nucleoside-nucleotide mixture may reduce memory deterioration in old senescence-accelerated mice. J Nutr., 130. 3085-9.

Chen XJ, Yang FQ, Wang YT, Li SP. (2010). CE and CEC of nucleosides and nucleotides in food materials. Electrophoresis, 31. 2092-105.

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Connolly, G. P. and Duley, J. A. (1999). Uridine and its nucleotides; biological actions, therapeutic potentials. Trend in Pharmacological Sciences, 20 (5). 218-225.

Corradetti R, Lo Conte G, Moroni F, et al. (1984). Adenosine decreases aspartate and glutamate release from rat hippocampal slices. Eur J Pharmacol., 104. 19-26.

Cosgrove M, Davies DP, Jenkins HR. (1996). Nucleotide supplementation and the growth of term small for gestational age infants. Arch Dis Child, 74. F122-5.

Cosgrove M. (1998). Nucleotides. Nutrition, 14. 748-51.

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Dancey CP1, Attree EA, Brown KF. (2006). Nucleotide supplementation: a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of IntestAidIB in people with Irritable Bowel Syndrome [ISRCTN67764449]. Nutr J., 8. 5:16.

De Kort EJ, Groenendijk M., Kamphuis, PJGH. (2011). A palatable nutritional composition comprising a nucleotide and/or a nucleoside and a taste masking agent. United States US 2011105594-A1, 2011-05-05. 

DeLucchi C, Pita ML, Faus MJ, Molina JA, Uauy R, Gil A. (1987). Effects of dietary nucleotides on the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane lipids in term infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr., 6.568-74.

Devresse B. (2000). A forgotten but key nutrient for the immune system: Nucleotides. A review and current advances. V Congreso Ecuatoriano de Acuicultura, enfocando los retos del 28-30 October 1999, Guayaquil, Ecuador.

 

Dhar S, Hicks C, Levenson AS. (2011). Resveratrol and prostate cancer: promising role for microRNAs. Mol Nutr Food Res., 55. 1219-29.

D’Mello, J.P.F. (1982). Utilization of dietary purines and pyrimidines by non-ruminant animals. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 41., 301-308.

Duong A, Mousa SA. (2009). Current status of nucleoside antivirals in chronic hepatitis B. Drugs Today, 45. 751-61.

Evaldsson C, Ryden I, Uppugunduri S. (2007). Anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous uridine in an animal model of lung inflammation. Int Immunopharmacol., 7. 1025-32.

Evans, M. E., J. Tian, L. H. Gu, D. P. Jones, and T. R. Ziegler. (2005). Dietary Supplementation With Orotate and Uracil Increases Adaptive Growth of Jejunal Mucosa After Massive Small Bowel Resection in Rats. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 29(5). 315-21.

Fanslow WC, Kulkarni AD, Van Buren CT and Rudolph FB (1988). Effect of nucleotide restriction and supplementation on resistance to experimental murine candidiasis, J. Parenter. Enteral Nutr., 12. 49-52

Faelli A, Esposito G. (1970).Effect of inosine and its metabolites on intestinal iron absorption in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol., 19.2551-4.

Fontana L., Moreira E., Torres MI., Fernandez I., Rios A., Sanchez DMF., Gil A.(1998). Dietary nucleotides correct plasma and liver microsomal fatty acid alterations in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by oral intake of thioacetamide. J Hepatol.,28 .662–669

Frank, Benjamin S. (1977). Nucleic Acid Nutrition and Therapy. New York: Rainstone Pub., Print.

Frankic T., Pajk T., Rezar V., Levart A., Salobir J.(2006). The role of dietary nucleotides in reduction of DNA damage induced by T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol in chicken leukocytes. Food Chem Toxicol., 44. 1838–1844.

Fukumori Y, Maeda N, Takeda H, et al. (2000). Serum glucose and insulin response in rats administered with sucrose or starch containing adenosine, inosine or cytosine. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem., 64. 237-43.

Fukumori Y, Takeda H, Fujisawa T, et al. (2000). Blood glucose and insulin concentrations are reduced in humans administered sucrose with inosine or adenosine. J Nutr., 130. 1946-9.

Gallai V, Mazzotta G, Montesi S, et al. (1992). Effects of uridine in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy: an electrophysiological study. Acta Neurol Scand., 86. 3-7.

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Giesecke, D., Tiemeyer, W. (1982). Availability and metabolism of purines of single cell proteins in monogastric animals. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 41. 319-327

Gil, A. (1983). Human milk nucleotides: Influences on the lipid metabolism of newborn infants. Abstract of Symposia XVI International Congress of Pediatrics. XVI International Congress of Pediatrics. Symposium Human milk: Recent knowledge, Manila, Philippines,82.

Gil, A. (2002). Modulation of the immune response mediated by dietary nucleotides. Eur J Clin Nutrition, 56(3). S1-4.

Gil A, Corral E, Martinez A, Molina JA. (1986). Effects of dietary nucleotides on the microbial pattern of faeces of at term newborn infants. J Clin Nutr Gastroenterol.,1.127-32.

Gil A, Lozano E, DeLucchi C & Pita A (1988). Changes in the fatty acid profiles of plasma lipid fractions induced by dietary nucleotides in infants born at term. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 42. 473-481.

Gil A, Pita M, Martinez A, Molina JÁ & Sanchez Medina F (1986). Effect of dietary nucleotides on the plasma fatty acids in at-term neonates. Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition, 40. 185-195.

Gil A, Sanchez-Medina F. (1981) Acid-soluble nucleotides of cow’s, goat’s and sheep’s milks, at different stages of lactation. Journal of Dairy Research. 48(1). 35-44.

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Grimble GK. (1996). Why are dietary nucleotides essential nutrients? Br J Nutr., 76 (4). 475-8

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Hanlin, Pinyao Zhao, Yan Lei, Tianshui Li, and Inho Kim. (2015). Response to an Escherichia Coli K88 Oral Challenge and Productivity of Weanling Pigs Receiving a Dietary Nucleotides Supplement.  J Animal Sci Biotechnol., 6.49.

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Li, Peng, Lewis,D., Gatlin,D. (2004). Dietary Oligonucleotides from Yeast RNA Influence Immune Responses and Resistance of Hybrid Striped Bass (Morone Chrysops × Morone Saxatilis) to Streptococcus Iniae Infection. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 16(5). 561-69.

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